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Introduction of the third-generation semiconductor material silicon carbide

wallpapers News 2021-01-04
Silicon carbide (SiC) material is the main development direction of the power semiconductor industry. It is used to make power devices and can significantly improve the utilization rate of electric energy. In the foreseeable future, new energy vehicles are the main application scenarios for silicon carbide power devices. As a technological pioneer, Tesla has taken the lead in integrating full silicon carbide modules in Model 3. Other first-tier car companies are also planning to expand the application of silicon carbide. With the declining manufacturing cost of silicon carbide devices and the gradual maturity of process technology, the future of the silicon carbide power device industry can be expected.
 
What is silicon carbide?
Silicon carbide (SiC) is a third-generation compound semiconductor material. The cornerstone of the semiconductor industry is chipping. The core materials used to make chips are divided into the first generation of semiconductor materials (most of them are currently widely used high-purity silicon), and the second generation of compound semiconductor materials (gallium arsenide, indium phosphide). ), third-generation compound semiconductor materials (silicon carbide, gallium nitride). Silicon carbide will be the most widely used basic material for semiconductor chips in the future due to its superior physical properties: high bandgap (corresponding to high breakdown electric field and high power density), high electrical conductivity, and high thermal conductivity.

 
 
The physical and chemical properties of silicon carbide
Physical properties
High hardness (Kr's hardness is 3000kg/mm"), can cut ruby.
High wear resistance, second only to diamond.
The thermal conductivity is higher than that of copper, 3 times that of Si and 8-10 times that of GaAs.
SiC has high thermal stability and is impossible to melt under normal pressure.
Good heat dissipation performance is very important for high-power devices.
 
Chemical nature
The corrosion resistance is very strong and can resist almost any known corrosive agent at room temperature.
The surface of Sic is easily oxidized to form a thin layer of Si0, which can prevent further oxidation. When the temperature is higher than 1700°C, the oxide film melts and an oxidation reaction occurs rapidly.
The bandgap of 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC is about 3 times that of Si and 2 times that of GaAs; the breakdown electric field strength is one order of magnitude higher than that of Si, and the saturation electron drift speed is 2.5 times that of Si. The bandgap of 4H-SiC is wider than that of 6H-SiC.
 
Market applications of silicon carbide
The main form of silicon carbide in semiconductor chips is the substrate. Semiconductor chips are divided into integrated circuits and discrete devices, but regardless of whether it is an integrated circuit or a discrete device, its basic structure can be divided into a "substrate-epitaxial-device" structure. The main form of silicon carbide in semiconductors is as a substrate material.
 
Silicon carbide wafers are single-crystal wafers formed by cutting, grinding, polishing, and cleaning silicon carbide crystals.
 
As a semiconductor substrate material, silicon carbide wafers can be made into silicon carbide-based power devices and microwave radiofrequency devices through epitaxial growth and device manufacturing. It is an important basic material for the development of the third-generation semiconductor industry.
 
According to different resistivity, silicon carbide wafers can be divided into the conductive type and semi-insulating type. Among them, conductive silicon carbide wafers are mainly used to manufacture high-temperature and high-voltage resistant power devices, with a large market scale; semi-insulating silicon carbide substrates are mainly used in microwave and radio frequency devices and other fields. With the accelerated construction of 5G communication networks, The market demand has increased significantly.

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