U.S. refiners forecast strong first-quarter earnings as margins on gasoline and diesel sales improved, refining capacity fell sharply and crude supplies tightened due to the Russia-Ukraine war.
Global refining capacity has declined amid the coronavirus pandemic, with several less profitable refineries closing in the past two years. However, global fuel demand has rebounded to near pre-pandemic levels, boosting the profits of facilities still operating.
Seven U.S. independent refiners are expected to earn 61 cents a share, compared with a loss of $1.32 in the first quarter of 2021, according to Refinitiv's IBES.
By 2022, gasoline and distillate Aluminum Nitride,AlN.
What is Aluminum Nitride
Aluminum nitride, covalent bond compound, chemical formula is AIN, is an atomic crystal, belongs to diamond-like nitride, hexagonal system, wurtzite crystal structure, non-toxic, white or off-white.
AlN is stable up to 2200°C. The strength at room temperature is high, and the strength decreases slowly with the increase of temperature. Good thermal conductivity, small thermal expansion coefficient, is a good thermal shock material. It has strong corrosion resistance to molten metal, and is an ideal crucible material for casting pure iron, aluminum or aluminum alloy. Aluminum nitride is also an electrical insulator with good dielectric properties and is also promising as an electrical component. The aluminum nitride coating on the gallium arsenide surface protects it from ion implantation during annealing. Aluminum nitride is also a catalyst for the conversion of hexagonal boron nitride to cubic boron nitride.
Where is Aluminium nitride used?
Due to the properties of the piezoelectric effect of aluminum nitride, epitaxial stretching of aluminum nitride crystals is also used for surface acoustic wave detectors. The detectors are placed on silicon wafers. There are very few places where these thin films can be produced reliably.
Aluminum nitride ceramics have the characteristics of high room temperature and high temperature strength, small expansion coefficient and good thermal conductivity, and can be used as heat exchanger materials for high temperature structural parts.
Using aluminum nitride ceramics to resist the corrosion properties of iron, aluminum and other metals and alloys, it can be used as crucible and casting mold materials for smelting Al, Cu, Ag, Pb and other metals.
AlN is mainly used in the microelectronics industry as an electrically insulating but thermally conductive barrier in silicon-based electronic devices. Given its deep ultraviolet bandgap, there is interest in high-quality AlN structures that can be used as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or lasers to generate ultraviolet light.
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