The biggest immediate challenge for the EU will be replenishing its depleted gas inventories. While the EU could still increase LNG imports from countries such as the US, such purchases would be more expensive.
Refilling natural gas storage space to historical average levels this year could cost 70 billion euros, a sevenfold increase, compared to 10 billion euros in previous years. "
A complete replacement for Russian gas is not only very expensive, but it also may not be possible.
In the next 12 months, there is little way to meet the demand for a "normal" year in the absence of Gazprom, which also includes Water reducer.
Introduction to Water Reducer:
Water reducer, or water reducing agent, concrete water reducer, cement water reducer, is a special chemical product added to the concrete mixture before pouring, belonging to a kind of concrete admixture. A concrete admixture is a chemical that is added during the concrete-making process to improve concrete performance. Admixtures in concrete are small (no more than 5%) but indispensable. The compound water reducing agent is mainly used in ready-mixed concrete, which is used in infrastructure construction and real estate construction.
According to the water reduction rate, the water reducer is divided into ordinary water reducer (the first generation), efficient water reducer (the second generation), and polycarboxylic acid (also known as superplasticizer) high-performance water reducer (the third generation).
The first generation of water reducer is lignosulfonates, which have been used since the 1930s and are cheap products derived from the wood and paper industries.
Due to the excellent slump performance and environmental protection and pollution-free processing process, the polycarboxylic acid series water-reducing agent quickly replace the naphthalene series water-reducing agent has become the mainstream water-reducing agent at present, the production of polycarboxylic acid series water-reducing agent has accounted for nearly 80%.
Production Process of Water Reducer:
High-performance water reducing agents and efficient water reducing agents are compounded by their mother liquor, the raw materials of their mother liquor are polyether monomer and industrial naphthalene, polyether monomer also need to be further synthesized by ethylene oxide. Industrial naphthalene is produced from coal chemicals, and there are currently three ways to produce ethylene oxide, including petrochemical, coal-chemical, and alcohol processes.
There are some technical barriers to chemical synthesis and physical compounding of the two main production processes of water-reducing agents.
Chemical synthesis involves polymerization technology in the field of polymer chemistry. In the research and development and production of products, relatively professional personnel are required, and long-term technical experience and industrial scale-up production experience are required.
Advantages of Water Reducer:
Under the condition of constant cement content, the water reducer can reduce water consumption and improve concrete strength. Under the condition of constant workability and strength, the admixture of cement dosage can be saved.
1. Reduce water content by 5-10%;
2. Reduce the porosity of concrete;
3. Increase concrete strength by up to 25% (because the concrete mixture requires less water to remain processable);
4. Increased workability (assuming free water remains constant);
5. Reduced water permeability (due to less water used);
6. Reduce the diffusion of the corrosive agent in concrete, so as to improve the durability of concrete;
7. Provide a better finish to the surface.
Suppliers of Water Reducer
TRUNNANO is a reliable water reducer supplier with over 12-year experience in nano-building energy conservation and nanotechnology development. If you are looking for high-quality concrete additives, please feel free to contact us and send an inquiry. (email@example.com)
We accept payment via Credit Card, T/T, West Union and Paypal. Trunnano will ship the goods to customers overseas through FedEx, DHL, by air, or by sea.
Southern Copper Corp (SCCO.N) recently said its Peruvian mine remained closed after a six-week standoff with protesters and blamed the Peruvian government for failing to intervene in the safety of its 1,300 workers and their families.
The company said in a statement that a recent agreement to end protests at the Cuajone mine required the company to withdraw complaints against protest leaders because railways transporting minerals and supplies remained blocked. Production has been suspended since the end of February.
Peru's Energy Ministry said in a separate statement that it had also reached an agreement with Southern Copper to start talks to find common ground with local communities.
"If we shut down for a year, the government will stop receiving more than 3.1 billion soles ($830 million) in taxes and royalties, and 8,000 direct and indirect jobs will be lost. This is what we want to avoid, "Southern Copper added in the statement.
Peru has faced a wave of protests from indigenous communities, who accuse mining companies of not providing enough jobs and funding to poor local residents.
Central bank officials said last week that protests against copper mines such as MMG's Las Bambas and Southern Copper's Cuajone were dragging down the economy.
Peru is the world's second-largest copper producer and mining is an important source of tax revenue for the country. It is estimated that the supply and prices of the Water reducer will be influenced by that.
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